Volcanoes, Mount Doom and the Great Mother
Volcanoes, fiery eruptions from within the earth, were repeatedly interpreted as the wrath of God and associated with the Mother Goddess.
To get started:
Tongariro Crossing, a hike to Mount Doom
Fire from the Earth: God's Speeches in Volcanoes
In earlier times, when people were still hunters and gatherers, they lived in strong connection with nature. They worshipped "Mother Earth" as a life-giving and nurturing deity long before the advent of a spiritual Father-God.
Violent natural manifestations that shook their livelihoods were experienced as signs of supernatural power and attributed to divine forces. Thus, volcanoes with their fiery violence from within the earth were repeatedly interpreted as the "wrath of God" or the wrath of the goddess.
Volcanoes in lore
Accordingly, volcanoes already play a role in early human lore.
In the Babylonian tradition (c. 1500 BC) Gilgamesh is afraid of a mountain of fire, a volcano, which could fall on him and his companion.
Jewish tradition also relates that Moses spoke to "God" on a mountain in fire and smoke, who instructed him to show the people the right way (cf. The Exodus from Egypt).
H.R. Tolkien places in his epic "The Lord of the Rings", Tolkien places the volcano at the centre of the struggle between good and evil, love and power, the righteous king and the evil ruler. Yet the Ring of Power can only be destroyed in the Mountain of Fire itself, in Mount Doom, namely where it was forged.